Primitives covered their heads with animal skins and leaves to protect their heads, which produced the prototype of hats. “Hou Han Shu Yu Fu Zhi” records that “in ancient times, they lived in caves and lived in wild places, and their clothes and hair were exposed to skin”. Ancient Chinese hats mainly include crowns, crowns, bians, towels, headbands, helmets and other varieties (see picture). The history of hats in various countries in the world is also very long. Men in ancient Europe often wore hoods and caps, while women wore veils and headscarves. In ancient Europe and the rural areas of Asia Minor, it was customary to wear straw hats made by families or hats made of other plant fibers. Felt hats with oval tops were often worn by traditional craftsmen in Athens and Rome. In Rome, this hat was a sign of the common people. Beaver fur hats were popular in Flanders in the 14th century, and later spread to France and England. British bowler hat, founded in 1850. Soft felt hats were popular in the United States in the second half of the 19th century. Popular in Latin America and the American West, the sombrero is a tall felt or straw hat with the brim rolled up at the brim. The Turkish hat is popular in the southeastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Its shape is flat, without brim, and conical. The traditional headgear of the Arabs is the colorful Muslim turban. Japan has a traditional silk black-lacquered kanmerai hat. In the tropics, people wear cork helmets to protect them from the sun.
The hair tie used by the ancient nobles, the long hair was tied up first and then tied with a crown. At the beginning of the crown, the main body is just a crown beam, which is not wide but has folds. There are silk tassels on both sides of the crown ring, knotted under the chin. After the Qin and Han dynasties, the beams of the crown gradually became wider, connecting with the crown circle to form a cup-shaped shape, and its shape gradually became hat-shaped. There are many names of crowns, the famous ones are beam crowns in Han Dynasty.
Mian and Ben
The ceremonial hats of ancient emperors, princes, and doctors. The crown is the most noble crown. There is a rectangular plate on the crown, which is called ?, and a row of beads (called 旒) is hung on the front of the ? In the Zhou Dynasty, there were twelve emperors, and there were equal differences in the number of princes and princes below. Later, only the emperors wore Mian, so “Mian” was also called the emperor. Bian is divided into Jue Bian and Pi Bian. Juebian means no crown. The leather bracket is made of white buckskin, and its stitching is famous. There will be knot decorations and multicolored jade.
A cap-shaped scarf that wraps the hair around the forehead. Before the Western Han Dynasty, it was only used by civilians, so there was a saying of “scholar’s crown and common people’s scarf”, and the color was black or blue. After about the Eastern Han Dynasty, nobles used a scarf to wrap their hair and called it a scarf. Because the front is high and the back is low and the hair is exposed in the middle, it can be used under the crown. From about the Jin Dynasty, the scarves were folded out of the edges and corners when they were worn, and they were called corner scarves or square scarves, which became a symbol of literati and scholars, and later called Confucian scarves. In the Sui Dynasty, scarves were included in the public service system. In the Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, scarves became common hats for adult men. Among them, the Tang scarf first used by the emperors of the Tang Dynasty, the Dongpo scarf created by the writer Su Shi of the Song Dynasty, and the Sifangping Ding scarf ordered by the founding emperor Zhu Yuanzhang of the Ming Dynasty are all famous scarf varieties.
Soft cloth for toe cap. There are four belts, the second belt is tied to the back of the head, and the second belt is tied to the head, making the twists and turns attached to the top. Futou began in the Northern Dynasties. In the Sui Dynasty, paulownia wood was used as the backbone to make the top stand up. In the Tang Dynasty, Luo replaced Zeng. The emperor bends up with his stiff feet, while the ministers hang down. Five generations of gradient straight. There are many styles of Futou in the Song Dynasty, and the straight-leg style can be worn by different classes.
Ancient military cap. Also known as helmet. In ancient times, it was made of metal or leather, and it was worn by soldiers in battle for protection. The modern army is still in use, called steel helmet.
There are two types of cap materials: main material and auxiliary material. The main materials are fur (fur), combed wool, leather, artificial leather, plush, cotton cloth, silk, various chemical fiber fabrics and mesh cloth, wool, wool, felt, plant fiber, plastic, metal, etc. The auxiliary materials include resin lining, non-woven fabric lining, cloth lining, yarn lining, linen lining, hot melt adhesive lining, polyurethane foam composite material, plastic board, etc.
Flag indicating cap size. Based on the data of head length, head width and head circumference of adults sampled nationwide, China has worked out the head shape series through calculation. According to this series, plus a 1cm circumference margin, it becomes an adult hat size, which is generally divided into three types: medium size, large size, and extra large size. For example, the medium size of the dome hat and forward hat worn in spring and autumn is 51-54cm, the large size is 55-60cm, and the extra-large size is over 61cm; the medium size of the winter fur hat is 53-55cm, and the large size is 56-61cm , the extra large size is above 62cm. There is no uniform regulation for various beanies and baby hats.
The process of drawing hat samples, helmet drawings and drawing up relevant technical documents. Generally can be divided into shape design, color and decoration design, model design.
The overall appearance style design of the cap. Use head shape series as standard or design based on human head. The size of each part of the cap is proportional to the mouth of the cap. The shape and design of the hat should conform to the face shape of the wearer, so that there are stilts, bends, and arcs, and the brim, head door, and ear fans must be coordinated. The shape structure should try to avoid right angles and acute angles, and use curves to set off the natural curve of the head shape. The production of the helmet head is particularly important in the shape design. The helmet head is a special tool for making hats, a basis for testing hat samples, and an important equipment for helmet trimming and ironing. The production of the helmet head should be based on the shape of the head. The girth of the helmet head should be greater than the standard girth of the human head, and the height should be greater than the standard height of the human head. In addition to the height of the helmet itself, a 5-6cm high helmet base should generally be added at the bottom.
color decoration design
It is a design link that matches with the shape design. Usually, foil, contrast, embellishment and other methods are used to make materials, colors, decorative parts and shapes suitable, and strive to be beautiful.
That is, the cutting pattern design. It is an important design link to realize the shape according to the design intention, engage in mass production, and ensure product quality. Generally, according to the samples or drawings, according to the standard head shape series data and head shape rules, the standard template is produced, and the number is scaled according to the cap number requirements.
There are various crafts such as sewing, felt tire forming, knitting, weaving, injection molding, etc. ① Sewing: Sewing by sewing machine is the main production process of caps. Its general process is laying materials, scratching, cutting, sewing, ironing and shaping, sewing and decoration, and finished product inspection. Due to the different types of caps, the methods and procedures for ironing and shaping are also different. For example, dome hats and forward hats made of natural and chemical fiber fabrics, after sewing, put them on the helmet head and iron them with an electric iron, so that the shape of the hat is compliant, crisp and beautiful. For the leather velvet cap, put the sewn cap lining on the helmet head, and form a flat cap inner tire by adding interlining cloth, cotton wool, brushing, heating, etc. Flattening, heating, and drying to form a shaped hat top with the tire and leather surface combined, and then the hat ear fans are sewn on, and finally the hat is made. ②Felt tire molding: mainly used for top hat production. The wool is carded, tire-made, bleached and dyed, and then ironed and pressed into shape with the corresponding helmet head according to the style. ③ Knitting: Use a knitting machine to weave the cap barrel and cap pieces, and then carry out sewing and ironing. It is basically the same as the sewing process. ④ Weaving: It is mainly hand-knitted with stick needles, crochet needles, etc. ⑤Injection molding: Inject plastic into the cap mold through an injection molding machine. It is mainly used to make helmets, etc.
According to the object of wearing, hats are divided into men’s hats, women’s hats, and children’s hats (including baby hats); according to materials, there are leather hats, cloth hats, fedora hats, felt hats, straw hats, steel helmets, plastic hats, etc.; , there are daily hats, professional hats, ethnic hats, religious hats, and sports hats; according to the seasons, there are fur hats for cold protection in winter, sun hats for summer, and windproof and sandproof hats for spring and autumn; Brimmed hats, toques, hoods. With the development of science and technology, there are more and more types of caps, and their functions continue to expand. There are medical magnetic therapy caps, electronic caps to prevent drivers from falling asleep, automatic massage music caps and radio safety alarm caps.
Generally refers to a hat with a brim. There are mainly top hats, bamboo hats and the following varieties. ① Panama hat: a light-colored straw hat made of bleached fibers from young palm leaves in Central and South America. Summer hats for men and women. It is named after its main distribution center, Panama. ②Dutch hat: a traditional Dutch female hat with a pointed crown and a brim turned back or sideways. ③Mexican hat: a straw hat or a woolen hat with a wide brim and a high top. Popular in Spain, Mexico and South America. ④Sailor cap: a small cap with the brim of the whole circle turned upwards. Also known as sailor hat. Usually the crown is four pieces, cut into a hemispherical shape. Inspired by the attire of American soldiers. ⑤Napoleon hat: The front and rear brims are folded upwards and are easy to carry. Also known as bicorne hat. It is the main hat type of Napoleon era. It is now used by the guard of honor of the United States, Britain and France. ⑥ Robin Hood hat: a hat with a pointed and high crown, and the brim is folded from the back to the sides. It is named after the legendary hero Robin Hood in the 12th century. ⑦ Sun visor hat: the crown is round, the brim extends around the mouth of the hat, and is supported by steel bars around it. There are two kinds of folding and non-folding. In China, it is a hat often worn by young women in summer. ⑧ Straw hat: a rainproof and sunshade dual-purpose hat similar to a sunshade hat. Wheat straw and other plant stems are woven into reels and then processed into shapes. ⑨Basin hat: a basin-shaped hat made of fiber fabrics, lined with cork-like crisps, or woven from palm leaves. ⑩Big brim women’s hat: A sun hat for women with a wide brim forward. Because the heroine of the British movie “Jane Eyre” wore it, it is also called the Jane Eyre hat.
Usually without a brim, but also includes a cap with a half tongue at the front. There are mainly 10 kinds. ①Soviet hat: a warm hat with a leather hat surface, a flat and round top with 6 petals, and seamed ears on the brim. It was originally worn by farmers or hunters in Northern Europe and Western Europe. It was introduced into China from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. The one without a tongue is called the Su style, and the one with a tongue is called the Peace style. ②Xinjiang hat: There are 4 ribs on the top, mostly colored velveteen as the hat surface, with embroidery and bead embroidery, etc., small and exquisite, it is a traditional Uyghur hat. ③Borsch hat: a cylindrical camel hair hat. There is a pompom in the top, and a uvula is exposed between the eyebrows. It was widely popular in China in the first half of the 20th century. ④ Beret: also known as doctor’s hat. Usually a black or dark blue woolen hat. ⑤ Red Army Cap: A gray flat cloth cap with a visor. The top of the hat is octagonal, also known as the octagonal hat. It was first used in the Red Army of Chinese Workers and Peasants in the 1930s. ⑥ Peaked cap: It was imported from abroad before the May 4th Movement in China, and it was named after its shape like a duckbill. The peaked cap is high in the front and low in the back, also known as the forward cap. ⑦Big cap: also known as big brim cap. It was introduced into China in the late Qing Dynasty. It is now a kind of military cap of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (see military uniform), and it is also used for professional clothing. ⑧ Huimin hat: round top, high front and short back wall, mostly made of white bleached cloth or blue velveteen. There are single and double layers. It is the traditional hat of the Hui nationality. ⑨Kujin felt hat: It looks like a felt hat and helmet, with gold embroidery on the top and inlaid decoration on the bottom. There is a small eaves on the front of the hat, and the ear fans are inlaid with squirrel hair. Most of them are worn by Tibetans. ⑩Chef’s hat: a round top with dense pleats around it and a wider hoop underneath. The higher the chef’s hat, the higher the craftsmanship, up to 35cm.
A cap that fits tightly over the top and back of the head, exposing the forehead, and ties under the palate. Sometimes a visor is attached. There are mainly 6 kinds. ①Baby hat: often made of silk or cloth. ②Tiger head hat: It looks like a tiger’s head and is used for children. There are also rabbit hats and so on. ③Swimming cap: a swimming sports cap made of rubber or other waterproof materials. ④Nightcap: A cap for hair care during sleep, fixed with a chin strap.